Lithium-6 and lithium-7 NMR

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Isotope Spin Natural
abundance (%)
Quadrupole moment
NMR frequency (MHz)
at a field of 2.3488T
Li-6 1 7.42 -0.0808 8.50E-3 6.31E-4 -14.716 LiCl
Li-7 3/2 92.58 -4.01 0.29 0.27 -38.863

Directory of solid-state Li-6 and lithium-7 NMR references
Single Crystal Crystalline Powder
Oxide, Zeolite
Amorphous Powder

Solid-state lithium NMR references

  1. Stephen Wimperis, George E. Rudman, and Karen E. Johnston
    Biexponential I = 3/2 spin−lattice relaxation in the solid state: multiple-quantum 7Li NMR as a probe of fast ion dynamics,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 128, 5453-5460 (2024).
    Open access
  2. Kikuko Hayamizu, Tomoyuki Haishi, Yasuhiko Terada, Kunimitsu Kataoka, and Junji Akimoto
    7Li diffusion in thin disks of single-crystal garnet LLZO-Ta studied by PFG-NMR spectroscopy,
    Recent Prog. Mater. 5 (2023).
    Open access
  3. Marie Duffiet , Maxime Blangero, Pierre Etienne Cabelguen, Kyeong Se Song, François Fauth, Claude Delmas, and Dany Carlier
    Probing Al distribution in LiCo0.96Al0.04O2 materials using 7Li, 27Al, and 59Co MAS NMR combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction,
    Inorg. Chem. 59, 2890-2899 (2020).
  4. W. M. J. Franssen, E. S. Blaakmeer, and A. P. M. Kentgens
    Satellite nutation of half integer quadrupolar nuclei: Theory and practice,
    J. Magn. Reson. 300, 41-50 (2019).
    Open access
  5. Cornelia Schröder, Jinjun Ren, Ana Candida M. Rodrigues, and Hellmut Eckert
    Glass-to-crystal transition in Li1+xAlxGe2−x(PO4)3: Structural aspects studied by solid state NMR,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 9400-9411 (2014).
  6. Michal Leskes, Amy J. Moore, Gillian R. Goward, and Clare P. Grey
    Monitoring the electrochemical processes in the lithium-air battery by solid state NMR spectroscopy,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 26929-26939 (2013).
  7. J. Schneider, J. Tsuchida, and H. Eckert
    Cation size effects in mixed-ion metaphosphate glasses: structural characterization by multinuclear solid state NMR spectroscopy,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 14328-14339 (2013).
  8. Frédérique Pourpoint, Xiao Hua, Derek S. Middlemiss, Paul Adamson, Da Wang, Peter G. Bruce, and Clare P. Grey
    New insights into the crystal and electronic structures of Li1+xV1-xO2 from solid state NMR, pair distribution function analyses, and first principles calculations,
    Chem. Mater. 24, 2880-2893 (2012).
  9. Y. Liang, B. Böhme, A. Ormeci, H. Borrmann, O. Pecher, F. Haarmann, W. Schnelle, M. Baitinger, and Yu. Grin
    A Clathrate-I phase with Li-Ge framework,
    Chem. Eur. J 18, 9818-9822 (2012).
  10. Sylvio Indris, Paul Heitjans, Reinhard Uecker, and Bernhard Roling
    Li ion dynamics in a LiAlO2 single crystal studied by 7Li NMR spectroscopy and conductivity measurements,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 14243-14247 (2012).
  11. M. Wilkening, E. Romanova, S. Nakhal, D. Weber, M. Lerch, P. Heitjans
    Time-resolved and site-specific insights into migration pathways of Li+ in α-Li3VF6 by 6Li 2D exchange MAS NMR,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19083-19088 (2010).
  12. O. Pecher, S.-T. Kong, T. Goebel, V. Nickel, K. Weichert, C. Reiner, H.-J. Deiseroth, J. Maier, F. Haarmann, and D. Zahn
    Atomistic characterization of Li+ mobility and conductivity in Li7-xP6-xIx Argyrodites from molecular dynamics simulations, solid-state NMR and impedance spectroscopy,
    Chem. Eur. J. 16, 8347-8354 (2010).
  13. D. Bräunling, O. Pecher, D. M. Trots, A. Senyshyn, D. A. Zherebtsov, F. Haarmann, and R. Niewa
    Synthesis, crystal structure and lithium motion of Li8SeN2 and Li8TeN2,
    Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 636, 936-946 (2010).
  14. M. Vijayakumar, Sebastien Kerisit, Zhenguo Yang, Gordon L. Graff, Jun Liu, Jesse A. Sears, Sarah D. Burton, Kevin M. Rosso, and Jianzhi Hu
    Combined 6,7Li NMR and molecular dynamics study of Li diffusion in Li2TiO3,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 20108-20116 (2009).
  15. A. Kuhn, E. Tobschall, and P. Heitjans
    Li ion diffusion in nanocrystalline and nanoglassy LiAlSi2O6 and LiBO2 – Structure-dynamics relations in two glass forming compounds ,
    Z. Phys. Chem. 223, 1359-1377 (2009).
  16. Baris Key, Rangeet Bhattacharyya, Mathieu Morcrette, Vincent Seznéc, Jean-Marie Tarascon, and Clare P. Grey
    Real-time NMR investigations of structural changes in silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries,
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 9239-9249 (2009).
  17. W. Iwaniak, J. Fritzsche, M. Zukalová, R. Winter, M. Wilkening, and P. Heitjans
    Li conductivity of nanocrystalline Li4Ti5O12 prepared by a sol-gel method and high-energy ball milling,
    Def. Diff. Forum 289-292, 565-570 (2009).
  18. P. Heitjans and M. Wilkening
    Diffusion in nanocrystalline ion conductors studied by solid state NMR and impedance spectroscopies,
    Def. Diff. Forum 283-286, 705-715 (2009).
  19. A. Kuhn, M. Wilkening, and P. Heitjans
    Mechanically induced decrease of the Li conductivity in an alumosilicate glass,
    Solid State Ionics 180, 302-307 (2009).
  20. M. Wilkening, A. Kuhn, and P. Heitjans
    Tuning the Li diffusivity of poor ionic conductors by mechanical treatment: High Li conductivity of strongly defective LiTaO3 nanoparticles,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9291-9300 (2008).
  21. M. Wilkening, M. Masoud, and P. Heitjans
    Li dynamics in amorphous LiNbO3 as probed by solid state NMR on different length scales,
    Diffusion Fundamentals 8, 5.1-5.7 (2008).
  22. P. Heitjans, E. Tobschall, and M. Wilkening
    Ion transport and diffusion in nanocrystalline and glassy ceramics - impedance and NMR spectroscopy measurements on Li ion conductors,
    Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 161, 97-108 (2008).
  23. M. Wilkening, A. Kuhn, and P. Heitjans
    Atomic-scale measurement of ultraslow Li motions in glassy LiAlSi2O6 by two-time 6Li spin-alignment echo NMR,
    Phys. Rev. B 78, 054303/1-054303/9 (2008).
  24. A. S. Cattaneo, R. P. Lima, C. E. Tambelli, C. J. Magon, V. R. Mastelaro, A. Garcia, J. E. de-Souza, A. S. S. de-Camargo, C. C. de-Araujo, J. F. Schneider, J. P. Donoso, and H. Eckert
    Structural role of fluoride in the ion-conducting glass system B2O3-PbO-LiF studied by single- and double-resonance NMR,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10462-10471 (2008).
  25. L. S. Cahill, C. W. Kirby, and G. R. Goward
    6Li{31P} rotational-echo, double-resonance studies of lithium ion site dynamics in Li3V2(PO4)3,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 2215-2221 (2008).
  26. M. Wilkening and P. Heitjans
    Li jump process in h-Li0.7TiS2 studied by two-time 7Li spin-alignment echo NMR and comparison with results on two-dimensional diffusion from nuclear magnetic relaxation,
    Phys. Rev. B 77, 24311/1-24311/13 (2008).
  27. M. Wilkening, D. Gebauer, and P. Heitjans
    Diffusion parameters in single-crystalline Li3N as probed by 6Li and 7Li spin-alignment echo NMR spectroscopy in comparison with results from 8Li β-radiation detected NMR,
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 22201/1-22201/5 (2008).
  28. J. Wontcheu, W. Bensch, M. Wilkening, P. Heitjans, S. Indris, P. Sideris, C. P. Grey, S. Mankovsky, and H. Ebert
    Tuning the structural and physical properties of Cr2Ti3Se8 by lithium intercalation: A study of the magnetic properties and investigation of ion mobility with NMR spectroscopy,
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 288-299 (2008).
  29. G. T. K. Fey, P. Muralidharan, Y. D. Cho, P. C. Chang, H. M. Kao
    Electrochemical performance and 7Li NMR studies on an inverse spinel LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 for Li-ion batteries,
    J. Power Sources 174, 1142-1146 (2007).
  30. Paul Heitjans, Muayad Masoud, Armin Feldhoff, and Martin Wilkening
    NMR and impedance studies of nanocrystalline and amorphous ion conductors: lithium niobate as a model system,
    Faraday Discuss. 134, 67-82 (2007).
  31. M. Wilkening, W. Iwaniak, J. Heine, V. Epp, A. Kleinert, M. Behrens, G. Nuspl, W. Bensch, and P. Heitjans
    Microscopic Li self-diffusion parameters in the lithiated anode material Li4+xTi5O12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) measured by 7Li solid state NMR ,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 6199-6202 (2007).
  32. D. L. Zeng, J. Cabana, J. L. Breger, W. S. Yoon, and C. P. Grey
    Cation ordering in Li[NixMnxCo(1-2x)]O2-layered cathode materials: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), pair distribution function, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical study,
    Chem. Mater. 19, 6277-6289 (2007).
  33. Vladimir K. Michaelis, Pedro M. Aguiar, and Scott Kroeker
    Probing alkali coordination environments in alkali borate glasses by multinuclear magnetic resonance,
    J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 2582-2590 (2007).
  34. J. F. Zhu, N. Mosey, T. Woo, and Y. N. Huang
    Study of the adsorption of toluene in zeolite LiNa-Y by solid-state NMR Spectroscopy,
    J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13427-13436 (2007).
  35. S. P. Puls and H. Eckert
    Spatial distribution of lithium ions in glasses studied by 7Li{6Li} spin echo double resonance,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 3992-3998 (2007).
  36. C. Lu, J. Z. Hu, J. H. Kwak, Z. G. Yang, R. M. Ren, T. Markmaitree, and L. L. Shaw
    Study the effects of mechanical activation on Li-N-H systems with 1H and 6Li solid-state NMR,
    J. Power Sources 170, 419-424 (2007).
  37. M. Wilkening, C. Mühle, M. Jansen, and P. Heitjans
    Microscopic access to long-range diffusion parameters of the fast ion conductor Li7BiO6 by solid state 7Li stimulated echo NMR,
    J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 8691-8694 (2007).
  38. L. van-Wullen, T. Echelmeyer, H. W. Meyer, and D. Wilmer
    The mechanism of Li-ion transport in the garnet Li5La3Nb2O12,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 3298-3303 (2007).
  39. R. Böhmer and F. Qi
    Spin relaxation and ultra-slow Li motion in an aluminosilicate glass ceramic,
    Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 31, 28-34 (2007).
  40. Z. Stoeva, B. Jager, R. Gomez, S. Messaoudi, M. Ben-Yahia, X. Rocquefelte, G. B. Hix, W. Wolf, J. J. Titman, R. Gautier, P. Herzig, D. H. Gregory
    Crystal chemistry and electronic structure of the metallic lithium ion conductor, LiNiN,
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 1912-1920 (2007).
  41. M. Wilkening, R. Amade, W. Iwaniak, and P. Heitjans
    Ultraslow Li diffusion in spinel-type structured Li4Ti5O12 - A comparison of results from solid state NMR and impedance spectroscopy,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1239-1246 (2007).
  42. S. Indris, P. Heitjans, R. Uecker, and T. Bredow
    Local electronic structure in a LiAlO2 single crystal studied with 7Li NMR spectroscopy and comparison with quantum chemical calculations,
    Phys. Rev. B 74, 245120/1-245120/5 (2006).
  43. M. Wilkening and P. Heitjans
    Extremely slow cation exchange processes in Li4SiO4 probed directly by two-time 7Li stimulated-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 9849-9862 (2006).
  44. L. van-Wüllen, N. Sofina, L. Hildebrandt, C. Muhle, and M. Jansen
    NMR studies of cation transport in the crystalline ion conductors MCF3SO3 (M = Li, Na) and Li7TaO6,
    Solid State Ionics 177, 1665-1672 (2006).
  45. K. Gotoh, M. Maeda, A. Nagai, A. Goto, M. Tansho, K. Hashi, T. Shimizu, and H. Ishida
    Properties of a novel hard-carbon optimized to large size Li ion secondary battery studied by 7Li NMR,
    J. Power Sources 162, 1322-1328 (2006).
  46. K. Yamada, K. Kumano, and T. Okuda
    Lithium superionic conductors Li3InBr6 and LiInBr4 studied by 7Li, 115In NMR,
    Solid State Ionics 177, 1691-1695 (2006).
  47. S. Jost, M. Kühnen, and H. Günther
    7Li and 13C solid-state NMR spectra of lithium cuprates,
    Magn. Reson. Chem. 44, 909-916 (2006).
  48. S. P. Puls and H. Eckert
    Site discrimination in mixed-alkali glasses studied by cross-polarization NMR,
    J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 14253-14261 (2006).
  49. M. Letellier, F. Chevallier, and F. Béguin
    In situ 7Li NMR during lithium electrochemical insertion into graphite and a carbon/carbon composite,
    J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67, 1228-1232 (2006).
  50. Martin Wilkening, Wilfried Küchler, and Paul Heitjans
    From ultraslow to fast lithium diffusion in the 2D ion conductor Li0.7TiS2 probed directly by stimulated-echo NMR and nuclear magnetic relaxation,
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 65901/1-65901/4 (2006).
  51. K. Nakamura, H. Ohno, K. Okamura, Y. Michihiro, T. Moriga, I. Nakabayashi, and T. Kanashiro
    7Li NMR study on Li+ ionic diffusion and phase transition in LixCoO2,
    Solid State Ionics 177, 821-826 (2006).
  52. P. D. Battle, C. P. Grey, J. A. Rodgers, and J. Sloan
    Structural chemistry of Ln2BaLiRuO7 (Ln = La, Pr),
    Solid State Sci. 8, 280-288 (2006).
  53. L. S. Cahill, R. P. Chapman, J. F. Britten, and G. R. Goward
    7Li NMR and two-dimensional exchange study of lithium dynamics in monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3,
    J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7171-7177 (2006).
  54. K. Arbi, M. A. Paris, and J. Sanz
    Lithium exchange processes in the conduction network of the nasicon LiTi2-xZrx(PO4)3 series (0 <= x <= 2),
    J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6454-6457 (2006).
  55. D. Capsoni, M. Bini, V. Massarotti, P. Mustarelli, F. Belotti, and P. Galinetto
    Cation distribution in LiMgVO4 and LiZnVO4: Structural and spectroscopic study,
    J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5409-5415 (2006).
  56. A. Y. H. Lo, R. W. Schurko, M. Vettraino, B. O. Skadtchenko, M. Trudeau, and D. M. Antonelli
    Solid-state 23Na and 7Li NMR investigations of sodium- and lithium-reduced mesoporous titanium oxides,
    Inorg. Chem. 45, 1828-1838 (2006).
  57. C. Chazel, M. Ménétrier, L. Croguennec, and C. Delmas
    Coupled ion/electron hopping in LixNiO2: A 7Li NMR study,
    Inorg. Chem. 45, 1184-1191 (2006).
  58. K. Nakamura, D. Nishioka, Y. Michihiro, M. Vijayakumar, S. Selvasekarapandian, and T. Kanashiro
    7Li and 51V NMR study on Li+ ionic diffusion in lithium intercalated LixV2O5,
    Solid State Ionics 177, 129-135 (2006).
  59. F. Qi, C. Rier, R. Bohmer, W. Franke and P. Heitjans
    Ion hopping in crystalline and glassy spodumene LiAlSi2O6: 7Li spin-lattice relaxation and 7Li echo NMR spectroscopy,
    Phys. Rev. B 72, 104301/1-104301/11 (2005).
  60. C. Chazel, M. Ménétrier, L. Croguennec, and C. Delmas
    6/7Li NMR study of the Li1-zNi1+zO2 phases,
    Magn. Reson. Chem. 43, 849-857 (2005).
  61. M. Ménétrier, Y. Shao-Horn, A. Wattiaux, L. Fournes, and C. Delmas
    Iron substitution in lithium-overstoichiometric "Li1.1CoO2": Combined 57Fe Mossbauer and 7Li NMR spectroscopies studies,
    Chem. Mater. 17, 4653-4659 (2005).
  62. Martin Wilkening and Paul Heitjans
    Ultraslow diffusion in polycrystalline h-LiTiS2 studied by 7Li spin-alignment echo NMR spectroscopy,
    Defect Diffus. Forum 237-240, 1182-1187 (2005).
  63. X. Guo, S. Greenbaum, F. Ronci, and B. Scrosati
    X-ray diffraction and 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance studies of iron- and cobalt-substituted LiNiO2 prepared from inorganic transition metal nitrates,
    Solid State Ionics 168, 37-49 (2004).
  64. F. Qi, G. Diezemann, H. Böhm, J. Lambert, and R. Böhmer
    Simple modeling of dipolar coupled 7Li spins and stimulated-echo spectroscopy of single-crystalline beta-eucryptite,
    J. Magn. Reson. 169, 225-239 (2004).
  65. T. Bredow, P. Heitjans, and M. Wilkening
    Electric field gradient calculations for LixTiS2 and comparison with 7Li NMR results,
    Phys. Rev. B 70, 115111/1-115111/11 (2004).
  66. C. P. Grey and N. Dupré
    NMR studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries,
    Chem. Rev. 104, 4493-4512 (2004).
  67. M. J. Reddy and P. P. Chu
    7Li NMR spectroscopy and ion conduction mechanism in mesoporous silica (SBA-15) composite poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte,
    J. Power Sources 135, 1-8 (2004).
  68. C. Mignon, Y. Millot, and P. P. Man
    Piezoelectric signal suppression by a composite-pulse sequence in NMR (PDF article, 191 Kb),
    C. R. Chimie 7, 425-430 (2004).
  69. P. Heitjans and S. Indris
    Diffusion and ionic conduction in nanocrystalline ceramics,
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, R1257-R1289 (2003).
  70. M. Wilkening, S. Indris, and P. Heitjans
    Heterogeneous lithium diffusion in nanocrystalline Li2O:Al2O3 composites,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 2225-2231 (2003).
  71. C. P. Grey and Y. J. Lee
    Lithium MAS NMR studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries,
    Solid State Sci. 5, 883-894 (2003).
  72. R. Q. Fu, Z. R. Ma, J. P. Zheng, G. Au, E. J. Plichta, and C. H. Ye
    High-resolution 7Li solid-state NMR study of LixV2O5 cathode electrodes for Li-rechargeable batteries,
    J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9730-9735 (2003).
  73. N. A. Sergeev and A. M. Panich
    Simple two-pulse time-reversal sequence for quadrupole-coupled spin system,
    Z. Naturforsch. 58a, 33-35 (2003).
  74. Anil Kumar, K. V. Ramanathan, T. S. Mahesh, Neeraj Sinha, and K. V. R. Murali
    Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear magnetic resonance: Use of quadrupolar and dipolar couplings,
    Pramana – J. Phys. 59, 243-254 (2002).
  75. M. Wilkening, D. Bork, S. Indris, and P. Heitjans
    Diffusion in amorphous LiNbO3 studied by 7Li NMR -- comparison with the nano- and microcrystalline material,
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3246-3251 (2002).
  76. H. Du, V. V. Terskikh, C. I. Ratcliffe, and J. A. Ripmeester
    Distinguishing surface versus buried cation sites in aluminosilicate mesoporous materials,
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4216-4217 (2002).
  77. F. Qi, T. Jörg, and R. Böhmer
    Stimulated-echo NMR spectroscopy of 9Be and 7li in solids: method and application to ion conductors,
    Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 22, 484-500 (2002).
  78. R. Siegel, J. Hirschinger, D. Carlier, S. Matar, M. Ménétrier, and C. Delmas
    59Co and 6,7Li MAS NMR in polytypes O2 and O3 of LiCoO2,
    J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 4166-4174 (2001).
  79. Manuel Sanchez-Sanchez and Teresa Blasco
    Pyrrole as an NMR probe molecule to characterise zeolite basicity,
    Chem. Commun.491-492 (2000).
  80. R. Böhmer
    Multiple-time correlation functions in spin-3/2 solid-state NMR spectroscopy,
    J. Magn. Reson. 147, 78-88 (2000).
  81. R. Böhmer, T. Jörg, F. Qi, and A. Titze
    Stimulated 7Li echo NMR spectroscopy of slow ionic motions in a solid electrolyte,
    Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 419-424 (2000).
  82. H. W. Shin, S. H. Choh, T. H. Yeom, K. S. Hong, and D. Y. Han
    1D nutation NMR of 7Li in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 single crystals and powders,
    J. Korean Phys. Soc. 32, S662-S664 (1998).
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